From these analyses, Johnson et al. (2001) proposed a sediment quality guideline of one thousand ppb total PAH (ng/g dry weight) to attenuate effects on estuarine fish ( Figure 5-4 ). This is in keeping with observations made by different investigators for different estuarine species (Mya arenaria, mushy shell clam; McDowell and Shea, 1997; Ampelisca abdita, amphipod; Ho et al., 1999). Rice et al. (2001) reviewed studies on the long-time period results of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on pink salmon, specifically addressing differential results of low concentrations of oil on particular life history levels. Cairns (1983) argued that our skill to detect toxic effects at larger levels of organic organization is restricted by the lack of dependable predictive exams at population, neighborhood, and ecosystem levels.
It is troublesome to ascertain, nonetheless, the relationship between chronic responses of organisms to contaminants and large-scale alterations in the functioning of marine ecosystems or the sustainable yield of harvestable species. However, bioavailability, measured as log bioconcentration issue (BCF: concentration in tissues/concentration in water at equilibrium), doesn’t enhance in a linear fashion with rising PAH log Kow (Baussant et al., 2001a,b). Petroleum hydrocarbons of the types discovered within the marine surroundings may be current in true resolution, complexed with dissolved natural matter and colloids, as dispersed micelles, adsorbed on the surface of inorganic or organic particles, occluded inside particles (e.g., in soot, coal, or tar), associated with oil droplets, and within the tissues of marine organisms (Readman et al., 1984; Gschwend and Schwarzenbach, 1992).